M.A. University of Chicago - History of photography, theory of photography and film; history and theory of perspective, Medieval and Renaissance theory of vision; critical theory, aesthetics and the theory of representation.
- Gentlemen Photographers: the Work of Loring Underwood and Wm. Lyman Underwood (Solio Foundation, 1987).
- American Frontiers: The Photographs of Timothy H. O'Sullivan, 1867-1874, (Aperture, 1981).
- The Documentary Photograph as a Work of Art: American Photographs, 1860-1876, (David and Alfred Smart Gallery, 1976), with three co-authors.
- On the Art of Fixing A Shadow, (National Gallery of Art, 1989).
- "Res Ipsa Loquitur," in Things that Talk (Zone books 2004).
- "Enabling Confusion," in History of Photography, (Summer 2002).
- "Nineteenth-century photography of sculpture and the rhetoric of substitution," in Sculpture and Photography: Envisioning the Third Dimension, (Cambridge UP, 1998).
- "Visualization and Visibility," in Picturing Science/Making Art, (Reaktion Books, 1997).
- "Territorial Photography," in Landscape and Power (University of Chicago Press, 1994).
- "Fenetres, Miroirs, et transparence picturale," (Cahiers du Musee National d'Art Moderne, Autumn 1992).
- "Réflexions sur Les Ménines: le paradoxe perdu," with Ted Cohen, (Cahiers du Musee National d'Art Moderne, Summer 1991).
- "Notes from the Ground" (Critical Inquiry, Winter 2004)
- "Las Meninas and the Mirror of the Prince" (Critical Inquiry, June 1985)
- "Picturing Vision" (Critical Inquiry, Spring 1980).